// Intel 82574L NICs: network hangs / ASPM Bug / e1000 driver

A few days ago, I ran into an ugly bug on different Scientific Linux 6.3 hosts (therefore this should also affect RHEL 6.3 and CentOS 6.3). The network hangs while the system itself is up, running and responsive. “Just” no network. Restarting the affected network interfaces is not enough, only a complete reboot brings the Intel 82574L-based network cards back to life (those NICs are onBoard on the Supermicro X9SCM-F and X8SIL mainboards of the affected hosts, so I can't simply change them). The logs showed entries like the following:

Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: WARNING: at net/sched/sch_generic.c:261 dev_watchdog+0x26d/0x280() (Not tainted)
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: Hardware name: X9SCL/X9SCM
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: NETDEV WATCHDOG: eth1 (e1000e): transmit queue 0 timed out
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: Modules linked in: fuse autofs4 sunrpc vboxpci(U) vboxnetadp(U) vboxnetflt(U) vboxdrv(U) cpufreq_ondemand acpi_cpufreq freq_table mperf ipt_REJECT nf_conntrack_ipv4 nf_defrag_ipv4 iptable_filter ip_tables ip6t_REJECT nf_conntrack_ipv6 nf_defrag_ipv6 xt_state nf_conntrack ip6table_filter ip6_tables ipv6 ext3 jbd uinput raid1 sg microcode i2c_i801 i2c_core iTCO_wdt iTCO_vendor_support shpchp e1000e ext4 mbcache jbd2 fpu aesni_intel cryptd aes_x86_64 aes_generic xts gf128mul dm_crypt raid10 sd_mod crc_t10dif ahci video output dm_mirror dm_region_hash dm_log dm_mod [last unloaded: scsi_wait_scan]
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: Pid: 0, comm: swapper Not tainted 2.6.32-279.19.1.el6.x86_64 #1
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: Call Trace:
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: <IRQ>  [<ffffffff8106a1e7>] ? warn_slowpath_common+0x87/0xc0
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff8101c0fa>] ? intel_pmu_enable_all+0xba/0x160
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff8106a2d6>] ? warn_slowpath_fmt+0x46/0x50
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff8144792d>] ? dev_watchdog+0x26d/0x280
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff814476c0>] ? dev_watchdog+0x0/0x280
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff8107d2c7>] ? run_timer_softirq+0x197/0x340
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff810a0910>] ? tick_sched_timer+0x0/0xc0
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff8102adad>] ? lapic_next_event+0x1d/0x30
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff81072991>] ? __do_softirq+0xc1/0x1e0
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff81095510>] ? hrtimer_interrupt+0x140/0x250
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff8100c1cc>] ? call_softirq+0x1c/0x30
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff8100de05>] ? do_softirq+0x65/0xa0
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff81072775>] ? irq_exit+0x85/0x90
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff814f1fa0>] ? smp_apic_timer_interrupt+0x70/0x9b
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff8100bb93>] ? apic_timer_interrupt+0x13/0x20
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: <EOI>  [<ffffffff812ec17e>] ? acpi_idle_enter_c1+0xa3/0xc1
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff812ec15d>] ? acpi_idle_enter_c1+0x82/0xc1
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff813f6c67>] ? cpuidle_idle_call+0xa7/0x140
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff81009fc6>] ? cpu_idle+0xb6/0x110
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff814d109a>] ? rest_init+0x7a/0x80
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff81c21f7b>] ? start_kernel+0x424/0x430
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff81c2133a>] ? x86_64_start_reservations+0x125/0x129
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: [<ffffffff81c21438>] ? x86_64_start_kernel+0xfa/0x109
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: ---[ end trace 1f3cc9d5dfc619c0 ]---
Jan 24 09:52:35 host2 kernel: e1000e 0000:02:00.0: eth1: Reset adapter

After some googleing, I found a useful Bug-Report and a mailing list thread. Especially three postings are quite informative:

It seems that the ASPM of the Intel 82574L is broken. The corresponding Linux driver “e1000” therefore has this chip on its ASPM blacklists and disables it when the systems boots. However, there is some side effect which re-enabled the NIC'S ASPM state L1 after a network connection was established. This does not happen on all Linux flavors and kernel versions, but it happens at least on Scientific 6.3 with kernel 2.6.32-279.19.1.

Workaround: disable the NIC's ASPM after the system boots

A quick workaround is to manually disable the NIC'S ASPM after the system booted and the network “stabilized” (e.g. after a few minutes). The following command disables ASPM for a device:

setpci -s <ID-of-device> CAP_EXP+10.b=40

You can use lspci -vnn to get the device ID (first number of the line, 02:00.0 in the following example output):

[root@host2 ~]# lspci -vnn | grep '82574'
02:00.0 Ethernet controller [0200]: Intel Corporation 82574L Gigabit Network Connection [8086:10d3]

Example: I used /etc/rc.local to disable ASPM on the device with ID 02:00.0, five minutes after the system boots by putting the following lines at the end of the file:

# workaround for Intel 82574L bug, see http://bit.ly/1565w6I for details
printf '%s\n' 'setpci -s 02:00.0 CAP_EXP+10.b=40' | at now + 5min

Use lspci -vvvv -s <ID-of-device> if you want to check if ASPM is really disabled (look for “LnkCtl: ASPM Disabled”):

[root@host2 ~]# lspci -vvvv -s 02:00.0
02:00.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82574L Gigabit Network Connection
		LnkCtl:	ASPM Disabled; RCB 64 bytes Disabled- Retrain- CommClk+
			ExtSynch- ClockPM- AutWidDis- BWInt- AutBWInt-

I hope this helps someone else in some way. :-)

// Puppet boilerplate modules: more example content, new boilerplates

About a month ago, I introduced the “Puppet boilerplate modules” project with the goal to help users to create Puppet modules in a fast and comfortable way. I got much positive feedback and the “new module wizard” helped to create tons of modules for e.g. the companies I work for and with. Everything seems to be fine so far. :-)

But what I really want to write about is a new GIMP example module I created for the puppet-boilerplate-modules-example-content repository. It is based on a new boilerplate (application-004) which comes with additional preparations for software with plugin/extension/modules (or however the application's nomenclature calls such components). So check it out if you want to see what to expect and if the new content might be useful for you.

// Introducing Puppet boilerplate modules [Update]

My colleague and I are maintaining a “Puppet boilerplate modules” project (something like puppet module generate on steroids). To keep up with the OSS spirit, we thought it would be a good idea to share it with the community.

The project helps you to create high quality Puppet modules in a fast and comfortable way. Main goals are to boost efficiency and Puppet code quality. Use it if you want to get module skeletons with:

  • tidy and easily extendable structure
  • good README skeleton, RDoc documentation and license information
  • source code which follows the official style guide
  • an easy way to push your new modules to GitHub or Bitbucket
  • module variable debugging functionality (some boilerplates online)


  1. Clone the repository:
    $ git clone git://github.com/syn-systems/puppet-boilerplate-modules.git
  2. Call the wizard to create the module skeleton for a new module:
    $ ./puppet-boilerplate-modules/newmodule.sh

    Hint: You can provide the answers by using parameters. Use newmodule.sh -h to get a parameter listing and usage instructions.

The puppet-boilerplate-modules-example-content repository is your friend if you need more help. It provides example modules including detailed creation transcripts.1)

Example content

  • The puppet-boilerplate-modules-example-content repository provides example modules and rendered2) documentation (created with ). It should give you an impression of what to expect from and how to use puppet-boilerplate-modules and if the project might be useful for you.
  • Some screenshots of the module wizard (→ newmodule.sh):

Some explanatory notes

  • Every boilerplate comes with different manifest files, each encapsulates the Puppet code for a specific job. This ensures a clean module structure. The name of the manifest should say what it does in general, the RDoc block at the top provides more details. Example: the application-002 boilerplate comes with the following files in /manifests:
    • init.pp
      Contains the main module class. It validates the module parameters and coordinates the actions (e.g. by chaining resources).
    • params.pp
      Sets the default values for the parameters of the main module class (→ init.pp) and manages internal module variables. Therefore, many operating system dependent differences like package names are addressed in here.
    • package.pp
      Coordinates all software package management related actions. Normally, there is no need to edit this file.
    • config.pp
      Coordinates all configuration related actions. Many modules won't need this because most there is no need for a special application configuration. If so, just delete the file and the references in init.pp.
    • repo.pp
      Coordinates all package repository related actions. Many modules won't need this because an additional repository is not needed to install the application. If so, just delete the file and the references in init.pp.
  • Everything you must edit/check after you generated a module is marked with a FIXME/TODO. E.g. when the package list or some class calls when using the application-002 boilerplate.
  • You don't need to use GitHub/Bitbucket. The DVCS repository hosting part of the wizard is completely optional.
  • There is always room for improvement. If you're able to add any contributions to make our project better, please let me know or discuss your thoughts right here in the comments.

Update 2012-05-30: I changed the links and text regarding the new puppet example content.

the README files in the different directories
created with puppet doc --mode rdoc

// LSI 3ware RAID controller: "Parameter not changeable"

I upgraded the OS of two servers last weekend. The planned downtime was also used to install LSI 3ware 9650SE-4LPML RAID controllers plus Battery Backup Unit (BBU). The BBU enables the controller to keep the write cache during a power failure. However, I was not able to create a RAID array with “Write Cache: enabled” on one system. I always got the message “Parameter not changeable” when the configuration was stored.

The solution was simple: wait. The Battery Backup Unit (BBU) on the system was not charged enough, therefore the controller denied enabling the “Write Cache” setting. So if you get the message “Parameter not changeable” when configuring a LSI 3ware Raid Controller, check if the “Write Cache” setting is the root of it and if a charging or failed BBU caused it. You can check the BBU status in the Controller BIOS Setup (I found “BBU Ready: no” in “Information→Battery”).

// RPM/YUM GPG keys: verification, import, deletion, package signature check and additional notes

I'm fairly new to the Red Hat and Fedora Linux eco-system. Therefore I just wanted to teach myself some details about RPM and YUM today, especially how to use the commands to handle package signatures and repository GPG keys.3) I noticed many unanswered forum postings during my research. That's why I decided to write this little blog entry, helping search-engine users to find more answers than questions. :-)

List and verify keys

  • List all GPG keys on the RPM/YUM keyring:
    rpm -q 'gpg-pubkey-*' | sort

    The GPG keys are handled as gpg-pubkey-XXXXXXXX-YYYYYYYY packages. XXXXXXXX is the key ID in lowercase chars without 0x prefix. YYYYYYYY is the key creation time as unix timestamp in hex without 0x prefix.4) Example usage:

    $ rpm -q 'gpg-pubkey-*' | sort

    As you can see, my example RPM knows about the GPG keys 0x00A4D52B and 0x069C8460.

  • List all GPG keys on the RPM/YUM keyring with a brief description:
     rpm -q 'gpg-pubkey-*' --qf '%{name}-%{version}-%{release} -> %{summary}\n'

    The GPG keys are handled as gpg-pubkey-XXXXXXXX-YYYYYYYY packages. XXXXXXXX is the key ID in lowercase chars without 0x prefix. YYYYYYYY is the key creation time as unix timestamp in hex without 0x prefix.5) Example usage:

    $ rpm -q 'gpg-pubkey-*' --qf '%{name}-%{version}-%{release} -> %{summary}\n'
    gpg-pubkey-069c8460-4d5067bf -> gpg(Fedora (15) <fedora@fedoraproject.org>)
    gpg-pubkey-00a4d52b-4cb9dd70 -> gpg(RPM Fusion free repository for Fedora (15) <rpmfusion-buildsys@lists.rpmfusion.org>)

    As you can see, my example RPM knows about the GPG keys 0x00A4D52B and 0x069C8460.

  • List all GPG keys on the RPM/YUM keyring with all details:
    rpm -qi 'gpg-pubkey-*'
  • Check the fingerprint of a GPG key on the RPM/YUM keyring:
    rpm -q 'gpg-pubkey-XXXXXXXX-*' --qf '%{description}\n' | gpg --quiet --with-fingerprint

    XXXXXXXX is the key ID in lowercase chars without 0x prefix. Example usage:

    $ rpm -q 'gpg-pubkey-069c8460-*' --qf '%{description}\n' | gpg --quiet --with-fingerprint
    pub  4096R/069C8460 2011-02-07 Fedora (15) <fedora@fedoraproject.org>
          Key fingerprint = 25DB B54B DED7 0987 F4C1  0042 B4EB F579 069C 8460

Import and remove keys

  • Remove / delete a GPG key from the the RPM/YUM keyring:
    rpm -e --allmatches 'gpg-pubkey-XXXXXXXX-*'

    XXXXXXXX is the key ID in lowercase chars without 0x prefix. Example usage:

    $ rpm -e --allmatches 'gpg-pubkey-00a4d52b-*'

    This command would remove the GPG key with ID 0x00A4D52B.

  • Connect a GPG key to the RPM/YUM keyring:
    rpm --import '/path/to/public-key'

    Recent RPM versions can download keys via HTTP(S) and are even able to find ACSII-armored key blocks within HTML files. Example usage:

    $ rpm --import "http://pool.sks-keyservers.net:11371/pks/lookup?op=get&search=0x00A4D52B"

    This command would load the the GPG key 0x00A4D52B from a public keyserver and import it into RPM. Please note that SKS keyservers need working TCP connections on Port 11371.

Verify RPM package signatures

Signatures ensure that the packages you install are what was produced by the software maintainer and have not been altered (accidentally or maliciously) by any mirror or third party. YUM should do these checks automatically when installing something out of a repository. However, you may want to check the GPG signature of a RPM package by yourself:

rpm -Kv /path/to/example.rpm

RPM needs the correct public key for this check. If you don't know how to get it, read on to learn what to do.

A perfect real-world example is the RPM Fusion setup to configure the RPM Fusion repositories on your Fedora system. They provide setup packages to install the needed .repo files and GPG keys without hassle. But you should verify them to make sure they are not altered and are really containing the original RPM Fusion keys instead the ones an attacker is using to sign it's malicious packages for his fake repository. ;-)

Let' start. RPM Fusion says we can configure everything with the following command:6)

Existing APT knowledge is pretty useless on Fedora ;-)
4) , 5)
You can make it readable with date -d @$((0xYYYYYYYY)) "+%Y-%m-%d %T"
BTW: yum localinstall is outdated. From the yum manpage: “Note that the install command will do a local install, if given a filename. This option is maintained for legacy reasons only.”

// How to start with Puppet (system config management tool): useful links and resources

Puppet is a7) powerful open source tool to automate the configuration of and software management on Unix-like8) operating systems. This posting is a distillate of the resources I collected during my Puppet learning phase. I hope it helps to get an overview about what Puppet can do for you and how to use it (plus providing existing Puppet users some new ideas or tips).

Selected slides and presentations (overview, use-cases, experts, tips)

How to start

Puppet vs. [insert other tool here]

“Masterless” (Puppet without central server)

Source code standards

Source code tools


Useful source code, modules, blue prints, examples, inspiration

Design patterns, module organization strategies

Puppet security (basic thoughts)

Miscellaneous but useful

Starting points to find more useful content:



  • Puppet Labs provides YUM and APT repositories. If you need a newer Puppet version than the one offered by your distro repository, have a look at yum.puppetlabs.com and apt.puppetlabs.com. You might need to tinker a little bit to get a working repository file.
    Fedora YUM repository example:
    name=Puppet Labs - Products
    name=Puppet Labs - Dependencies
  • Puppet is also useful in very small IT environments like e.g. your home network. Even with only one system to maintain, you may want to automate things e.g. for fast re-installation (a central Puppetmaster server is not mandatory, cf. so called “masterless” mode → puppet apply site.pp). Compare the situation with a source code VCS: Thousands of developers are using something like Git for their source code, even if they are the only developer of a specific project. The reason is that Git is not just a tool for “big teams and corporations”. It provides functionality every developer can benefit from. Same for Puppet: even if you got only a few computers to maintain, you may want to automate things plus documenting your setup by doing so. Puppet provides functionality every administrator can benefit from.
IMHO the tool of choice
The current MS Windows support is not really worth to mention.
Don't forget to install rdoc on your system if you want to use puppetdoc --mode rdoc

// How to subscribe to a Google Group with a custom email address

The interface of Google Groups implies that you can only subscribe with a Google Account and its email address. But even Google makes it harder than it should be, it is possible to use any other valid email address to subscribe. You just have to call the subscription page manually by editing a URL:


Just substitute the following:

  • name-of-the-group → the group you want to subscribe to
  • your-url-encoded-email-address → your url-encoded email address

// DokuWiki templates: new versions of monobook, vector, prsnl10 and mnml-blog

I just released updated versions of the following DokuWiki templates:

  • vector – current MediaWiki/Wikipedia look and feel.
  • monobook – traditional MediaWiki/Wikipedia look and feel.
  • prsnl10 – minimalist template, suitable for portfolio and personal websites.
  • mnml-blog – minimalist template, suitable for blogging with BlogTNG.

All of them are compatible to “Angua” and its awesome new media manager. Have fun. :-)

// VirtualBox 4.1.6 on Fedora 15 with Kernel module compilation error

Some userspace programs got problems with the 2.6.x→3.x kernel numbering transition. To prevent the need to fix everything at once, the Fedora developers decided to ship 3.x kernels as 2.6.4x on Fedora 15 Lovelock and use the correct numbering scheme on Fedora releases ≥16 Verne.

This kernel version numbering hack makes some problems with the current VirtualBox 4.1.6 on Fedora 15: /etc/init.d/vboxdrv setup exits with an error (/var/log/vbox-install.log says that recompiling VBoxPci-linux.o failed). The reason is simple: A check thinks that the running kernel is older than 3.1. Therefore the wrong header file gets included (asm/amd_iommu.h instead of linux/amd-iommu.h).

Quick fix to get your VirtualBox working again:

  1. Open the belonging source code file as root:
    $ su -
    $ gedit /var/lib/dkms/vboxhost/4.1.6/source/vboxpci/linux/VBoxPci-linux.c
  2. Search for
    # include <asm/amd_iommu.h>

    (~line 37) and replace it with

    # include <linux/amd-iommu.h>
  3. Recompile the needed modules:
    $ su -c '/etc/init.d/vboxdrv setup'

// Buchempfehlung: Linux-Firewalls von Ralf Spenneberg

Cover, Ralf Spenneberg: Linux-Firewalls Jeder, der Linux-Server verwaltet oder z.B. Linux-SOHO-Router10) betreibt, wird früher oder später mit dem Thema “iptables/Netfilter” (bzw. ip6tables/Netfilter6) konfrontiert. Oft hangeln sich die jeweiligen Administratoren und Benutzer dann via Google von HowTo zu HowTo, und zimmern sich mit gefährlichem Halbwissen eine iptables-Firewall-Konfiguration zusammen. Alternativ wird zu Shorewall oder vergleichbaren Projekten gegriffen.

Falls man sich mit Linux basierenden Firewalls auseinandersetzen will, kann ich stattdessen jedem das Buch Linux-Firewalls von Ralf Spenneberg in seiner neusten Auflage empfehlen. Es ist sehr gut strukturiert und äußerst verständlich geschrieben, sofern man zumindest die absoluten Grundlagen eines Netzwerks hinsichtlich IP, TCP und UDP beherrscht. Der Autor führt den Leser gut an das Thema heran. Alles beginnt mit der Erklärung einfacher stateless-Paketfilter und geht dann über zu gut nachvollziehbaren stateful-iptables-Regeln. Es wird dabei genau für die Art von Grundverständnis gesorgt, welches bei einfachen Tutorials im Netz meist unter den Tisch fällt. Anschließend werden DMZ, transparente Firewalls, NAT-Router und vieles mehr mit iptables gebaut. Connection Tracking und dessen Konfiguration, wichtige Kernel-Parameter, Protokollierung und hilfreiche Werkzeuge nehmen ebenfalls einen großen Teil des Buchs ein. Auch das Thema IPv6 wird sehr verständlich betrachtet und das nötige Wissen vermittelt, um IPv6-fähige Firewalls betreiben zu können. Alles in allem kann ich das Buch uneingeschränkt empfehlen, auch als Nachschlagewerk.

Ich schreibe absichtlich SOHO-Router: man will für gewöhnlich keinen 10GbE-Router mit iptables betreiben/bauen.

// Linux laptop recommendation: ThinkPad T420 4180W1G / 4180PH1

If you are searching for a powerful laptop to run Fedora 15 Lovelock on, have a look at the Lenovo ThinkPad T420 4180W1G/4180PH1.11) It simply rocks. All the internal peripherals are working out of the box (LAN, WLAN, graphics, sound, microphone, webcam, volume up/down and mute buttons, brightness control buttons, eSATA…). The Intel HD3000 processor graphics runs smoothly. Even no problems with external monitors up to a 2560×1600 resolution or when using both the built-in screen plus an external monitor connected to the Mini Dock Series 3 45N6678 docking station. The Intel Core i5-2520M CPU provides VT-d and VT-x. So everything is fine if you want to run VMs.

Downsides, pitfalls and notes:

  • The built-in speakers are really bad, even for a laptop.
  • The keyboard shows signs of cosmetic wear after a few weeks of usage.
  • Microsoft tax a.k.a. Windows 7 Professional 64bit. At least, you can use the pre-installed Windows to update the laptop's firmware with a few clicks before installing Linux. And the license may be used to run a Windows 7 VM (although the laptop is shipped without installation media, you can download the original Windows 7 ISO images from Digital River).
  • I can't tell if the fingerprint sensor and the Class 1 Smartcard Reader are working out of the box because I do not need nor did I test them. But the Smartcard Reader is at least recognized by the OS.
  • When using the Mini Dock Series 3 45N6678, the analog sound line-out is not passed-through (everything else works). This means you still have to use the laptop's headphone connector to connect speakers.
  • If you are looking for similar models out of the T420 family, you should know that some of them got two graphics adapters (a combination of Intel and NVIDIA). I don't know if these make any trouble or need special configuration because the 4180W1G/4180PH1 comes with Intel graphics only.

:!: Tip for German readers: Studenten, Lehrer, Lehrkräfte und wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter bekommen das ThinkPad T420 4180PH1 bei Brünings + Sander :lang_de: mit erheblichem Rabatt. Ich habe nichts mit der Firma zu tun und bekomme auch keine Provision. Aber meine Erfahrungen mit B+S waren bisher stets positiv.

Don't get confused: 4180W1G and 4180PH1 are two model numbers for the same hardware.

// Fedora 15 on a HP Compaq 615 laptop: WLAN

The HPC 615 was very popular because of its attractive cost-performance ratio.12) I just installed Fedora 15 Lovelock on a HPC 615 with AMD Athlon X2, 320GiB HDD, ATI Radeon HD3200 and 4GiB RAM. Everything works out-of-the-box with one exception: Wireless LAN. There was no firmware for the Broadcom BCM4312 WLAN chip. However. Version of the proprietary firmware works like a charm:

  1. The B43 firmware cutter tool is used to extract and install the proprietary Broadcom firmware. Use a LAN cable to get internet connection. Open a terminal and install it:
    su -c 'yum install b43-fwcutter'
  2. Download the firmware and use b43-fwcutter to extract and install it:
    su -
    cd /tmp
    wget http://downloads.openwrt.org/sources/broadcom-wl-
    tar xjf ./broadcom-wl-
    cd ./broadcom-wl-
    b43-fwcutter -w /lib/firmware/ wl_apsta_mimo.o

    Reboot or restart the network. Your WLAN should work now.

Note: I tried several things before. Known solutions and b43-openfwwf were not able to provide a stable connection when using WPA2. Same for other versions of the proprietary Broadcom firmware.

well: this is not true for all option models. But most of the ones shipped with FreeDOS instead of MS Windows were damn cheap.

// How to change Fedora's font rendering to get an Ubuntu-like result [Update]

Font rendering is a matter of taste. However, I personally think Ubuntu's default font rendering is the most eye-pleasing one of the whole Linux eco-system. And if a website's CSS font stack is looking good on Ubuntu, you can be relatively sure that it also works for Mac or MS Windows as long as the used fonts are available on these platforms. It is not hard to get the same font rendering on Fedora. This text is just a bit longer than a few commands because I try to provide additional background information and useful web-search-keywords which you may need if you have other targets than a 100% Ubuntu-like rendering.

The basics

To achieve the desired result, you have to know which parameters exist and how to change them. The most important things are:

  • Resolution (DPI).
  • Font hinting and the used font hinting method.
  • Font rasterization. Especially the used anti-aliasing method and its strength.
  • The used font rendering engine. The one shipped with Fedora comes without subpixel rendering (more on this later).

So let's look at the defaults applied on Ubuntu 10.10. You can do this on the terminal with xrdb -query:

Xft.dpi:	96
Xft.antialias:	1
Xft.hinting:	1
Xft.hintstyle:	hintslight
Xft.rgba:	rgb
Xft.lcdfilter:	lcddefault

As you can see, Ubuntu is using RGB anti-aliasing with subpixel rendering (lcd-default means “subpixel (LCD)” method) and slight font hinting. Now compare this with the default values on Fedora 15 Lovelock:

Xft.antialias:	1
Xft.dpi:	96
Xft.hinting:	1
Xft.hintstyle:	hintmedium
Xft.rgba:	none

This shows that Fedora does use grayscale anti-aliasing, a stronger font hinting style and no subpixel rendering by default. This is the reason why the same fonts look different on Fedora and Ubuntu.

What to do

  1. Install the freetype-freeworld package. You need subpixel rendering the achieve the same results as on Ubuntu. The FreeType rendering engine shipped by default comes without it but you can install the freetype-freeworld package out of the RMPfusion-free repository to get a version with subpixel rendering. If not already happend, enable RPM Fusion on your system. Open a terminal and install the freetype-freeworld package:
    su -c "yum install freetype-freeworld"

    You should know that subpixel rendering is patented and therefore not completely free (as in speech). Using this package might not be legal in your country. The choice is yours and it is your legal responsibility to make sure that the software you are installing can be legally used.

  2. Adjust the hinting style and enable RGB anti-aliasing. Ubuntu it using hintslight hinting by default, Fedora comes with hintmedium. Additionally, we need RGB instead of grayscale anti-aliasing. Open a terminal and execute the following commands to set the anti-aliasing and hinting style:
    gsettings "set" "org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.xsettings" "hinting" "slight"
    gsettings "set" "org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.xsettings" "antialiasing" "rgba"
  3. Activate the lcddefault lcdfilter. Unfortunately, there is no GSettings key for it (at least as I'm writing this), therefore you have to create a hidden .Xresource file with the Xft.lcdfilter: lcddefault setting in your home directory. Open a terminal and execute the following command to do so:
    echo "Xft.lcdfilter: lcddefault" > ~/.Xresources
  4. Some settings need a restart to take effect, so reboot your system. If everything worked you should get the following xrdb -query output (the output order does not matter if the values are the same):
    Xft.antialias:	1
    Xft.dpi:	96
    Xft.hinting:	1
    Xft.hintstyle:	hintslight
    Xft.lcdfilter:	lcddefault
    Xft.rgba:	rgb

Additional notes

  • You may find the gnome-tweak-tool interesting. E.g. it provides an option to switch the window-title-bar font. Use the following command to install it:
    su -c "yum install gnome-tweak-tool"
  • I used the command line tool gsettings to adjust the GSettings key values above. If you want to influence and explore available keys by using a GUI, have a look at the dconf-editor. Use the following command to install it:
    su -c "yum install dconf-editor"
  • You may want to use the Ubuntu fonts, too. They are not included in the main repositories right now,13) therefore I wrote the install-ubuntufonts-fedora.sh bash script to make the font installation faster and easier. There is a high probability that this script will never be useful to someone else than myself. But you never know. If you want to use it, open a terminal and run the following commands to download and execute it (copy and paste recommended):
    wget "http://blog.andreas-haerter.com/_export/code/2011/07/18/install-ubuntufonts-fedora.sh?codeblock=1" -O "/tmp/install-ubuntufonts-fedora.sh"
    chmod a+rx "/tmp/install-ubuntufonts-fedora.sh"
    su -c "/tmp/install-ubuntufonts-fedora.sh"

    Please read the Ubuntu Font Licence for all the rules that govern the use of the fonts.

  • If you want to go any further, you should know some things about the fontconfig system. First of all, it is controlled by *.conf files. Fedora is looking for them at the /etc/fonts/conf.d/ directory and they get imported in alphabetical order.14) Please note that every file in this directory should be a symlink pointing to a real config file located in /etc/fonts/conf.avail/. This makes it possible to deactivate settings by deleting the symlink in /etc/fonts/conf.d/ without loosing the corresponding config file in /etc/fonts/conf.avail/. It is also recommended to follow the rule “one setting, one file”. This makes sure you always know which files configures what.
    All settings at /etc/fonts/conf.d/ are affecting all user accounts and therefore you need root privileges to create or edit the files. If you want to influence only a specific user account, it is also possible to place files in the user's ~/.fontconfig/ directory (simply create it if it is not already existing).
  • I assume that your display is using RGB pixels (the subpixel layout test page can help you to verify this). If your monitor is using BGR, V-RGB, or V-BGR pixels, you might want to use another anti-aliasing setting than rgba.


Edit 2011-07-21: Here are the demanded screenshots. You can use your keyboard to navigate trough them ( and key). The last one shows a terminal with Ubuntu fonts.

There is only a ubuntu-title-fonts package which does not install the normal Ubuntu font
Numerical prefixes are used to adjust the import order. See /etc/fonts/conf.d/README for details
I'm no native speaker (English)
Please let me know if you find any errors (I want to improve my English skills). Thank you!
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